Amrioclomol 289893-25-0

289893-25-0 MSDS

product Name Amrioclomol MSDS
Synonyms Arimoclomol [INN]; Arimoclomol; Arimoclomolum; Arimoclomolum [INN-Latin]; BRX 345; BRX-345; N-((2R)-2-Hydroxy-3-(1-piperidyl)propoxy)pyridine-3-carboximidoyl chloride, 1-oxide; UNII-EUT3557RT5; 3-Pyridinecarboximidoyl chloride, N-((2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(1-piperidinyl)propoxy)-, 1-oxide; N-{[(2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl]oxy}pyridine-3-carboximidoyl chloride 1-oxide
Molecular Formula C14H20ClN3O3
Molecular Weight 313.7799
InChI InChI=1/C14H20ClN3O3/c15-14(12-5-4-8-18(20)9-12)16-21-11-13(19)10-17-6-2-1-3-7-17/h4-5,8-9,13,19H,1-3,6-7,10-11H2/t13-/m1/s1
CAS Registry Number 289893-25-0
Molecular Structure 289893-25-0 Amrioclomol

Density 1.32g/cm3
Boiling point 539.2°C at 760 mmHg
Refractive index 1.593
Flash point 279.9°C
Vapour Pressur 1.85E-12mmHg at 25°C
Hazard Symbols
Risk Codes
Safety Description

 

dimethyldioxirane msds

Dimethyldioxirane is a dioxirane derived from acetone. It is the most commonly used dioxirane in organic synthesis, and can be considered as a monomer of acetone peroxide. dimethyldioxirane  msds

Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) is a dioxirane derived from acetone. It is the most commonly used dioxirane in organic synthesis, and can be considered[citation needed] as a monomer of acetone peroxide.

Synthesis

DMDO is not commercially available because of its instability. DMDO can be prepared by the reaction of acetone with oxone, where thepotassium peroxymonosulfate is the active ingredient:[1]

Preparation of DMDO.png

The preparation of DMDO is rather inefficient (typical yields < 3%) and typically only yields a relatively dilute solution in acetone (only up to approximately 0.1 M). However, this is of no consequence, since DMDO is prepared from extremely cheap starting materials: acetone, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium peroxymonosulfate (commercially known as “oxone”). The solution can be stored at low temperatures and assayed immediately prior to use to determine its actual concentration.

[edit]Uses

The most common use for DMDO is the oxidation of alkenes to epoxides. One particular advantage of using DMDO is that the only byproduct of oxidation is acetone, a fairly innocuous and volatile compound. DMDO oxidations are particularly mild, sometimes allowing oxidations which might not otherwise be possible. In fact, DMDO is considered the reagent of choice for epoxidation, and in nearly all circumstances is as good as or better than peroxyacids such as meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA).

Despite its high reactivity, DMDO displays good selectivity for olefins. Typically, electron deficient olefins are oxidized more slowly than electron rich ones. DMDO will also oxidize several other functional groups. For example, DMDO will oxidize primary amines to nitro compounds andsulfides to sulfoxides. In some cases, DMDO will even oxidize unactivated C-H bonds:

Dioxirane oxidations.png

DMDO can also be used to convert nitro compounds to carbonyl compounds (Nef reaction).

Nef DMDO.png
Identifiers
CAS number 74087-85-7 MSDS Yes
PubChem 115197
ChemSpider 103073 Yes
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C3H6O2
Molar mass 74.08 g/mol

Prenylamine

Prenylamine (Segontin) is a calcium channel blocker of the amphetamine chemical class which is used as a vasodilator in the treatment ofangina pectoris. It has been shown to partially metabolize to amphetamine and can cause false positives for it in drug tests.[1][2][3] Prenylamine also appears to act as a vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitor, and has been demonstrated to deplete vesicular monoamineneurotransmitter stores similarly to reserpine

Prenylamine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-N-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-3,3-diphenylpropan-1-amine
Clinical data
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Uncontrolled
Routes Oral
Identifiers
ATC code C01DX02
PubChem CID 9801
UNII K2OH82Z000 
ChEMBL CHEMBL24072 
Synonyms N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)amphetamine
Chemical data
Formula C24H27N 
Mol. mass 329.48 g/mol

Anipamil 83200-10-6

Identifiers
CAS number 83200-10-6 Yes
PubChem 54966
ChemSpider 49636 Yes
EC number 280-213-5
MeSH Anipamil
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C34H52N2O2
Molar mass 520.79 g mol−1

Pranidipine 99522-79-9

Pranidipine is a calcium channel blocker. It is a long acting calcium channel antagonist of the dihydropyridine group

Pranidipine
Identifiers
CAS number 99522-79-9 
PubChem 6436048
ChEMBL CHEMBL1096842 
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C25H24N2O6
Molar mass 448.46786

How much thinner could an OLED screen make the iPhone?

Not that much… most of thickess in a phone is still due to other components, specially the battery…

technology to make the screen thinner. In fact, they claim that mass production of the screens has already started.

Japanese liquid-crystal-display makers Sharp Corp. and Japan Display Inc.—a new company that combined three Japanese electronics makers’ display units—as well as South Korea’s LG Display Co. are currently mass producing panels for the next iPhone using so-called in-cell technology, the people said.

The technology integrates touch sensors into the LCD thereby removing an separate component layer just for the touch-screen. Aside from reduced thickness, it would also improve the image quality. The Wall Street Journal also claims it will help reduce Apple’s costs by eliminating separate suppliers for each component.

Reports of Apple’s interest in “in-cell” technology is not new with the first reports back inApril. KGI Securities Analyst Ming-Chi Kuo took a detailed look at the technology and suggested that the new iPhone could be at least 1.4mm slimmer than the iPhone 4S.


While part of the thickness savings would come from the in-cell technology, Apple could also reduce the thickness of the battery and use a thinner metal back casing.

The next generation iPhone is widely expected to be launched this fall.

How OLEDs Work

Photo Courtesy: Samsung Electronics
Samsung’s prototype 40-inch OLED TV. See more HDTV pictures.

Imagine having a high-definition TV that is 80 inches wide and less than a quarter-inch thick, consumes less power than most TVs on the market today and can be rolled up when you’re not using it. What if you could have a “heads up” display in your car? How about a display monitor built into your clothing? These devices may be possible in the near future with the help of a technology called organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application ofelectricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today.

 

More TV Tech
  • 10 Trendy TVs
  • Plasma Displays
  • TreeHugger.com: OLED Screens

 

In this article, you will learn how­ OLED technology works, what types of OLEDs are possible, how OLEDs compare to other lighting techn­ologies and what problems OLEDs need to overcome.

OLED vs LCD

OLEDs are not just thin and efficient – they can also be made flexible (even rollable) and transparent.

What is an OLED?

OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) is a flat light emitting technology, made by placing a series of organic thin films between two conductors. When electrical current is applied, a bright light is emitted. OLEDs can be used to make displays and lighting. Because OLEDs emit light they do not require a backlight and so are thinner and more efficient than LCD displays(which do require a white backlight).

OLED displays have the following advantages over LCD displays:

  • Lower power consumption
  • Faster refresh rate and better contrast
  • Greater brightness – The screens are brighter, and have a fuller viewing angle
  • Exciting displays – new types of displays, that we do not have today, like ultra-thin, flexible or transparent displays
  • Better durability – OLEDs are very durable and can operate in a broader temperature range
  • Lighter weight – the screen can be made very thin, and can even be ‘printed’ on flexible surfaces

The future – flexible and transparent OLED displays

It turns out that because OLEDs are thin and simple – they can be used to create flexible and even transparent displays. This is pretty exciting as it opens up a whole world of possibilities:

  • Curved OLED displays, placed on non-flat surfaces
  • Wearable OLEDs
  • Transparent OLEDs embedded in windows
  • OLEDs in car windshields
  • New designs for lamps
  • And many more we cannot even imagine today…

有機エレクトロルミネッセンス 歴史

The first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials were in the early 1950s by A. Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Université, France. They applied high-voltagealternating current (AC) fields in air to materials such as acridine orange, either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons.[1][2][3][4]

In 1960, Martin Pope and co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals.[5][6][7] They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. Pope’s group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a pure single crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963[8] using a small area silver electrode at 400 V. The proposed mechanism was field-accelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence.

Pope’s group reported in 1965[9] that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole, and that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965, W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes,[10] the forerunner of modern double injection devices. In the same year, Dow Chemical researchers patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high voltage (500–1500 V) AC-driven (100–3000 Hz) electrically insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder, tetracene, and graphite powder.[11] Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules.

Device performance was limited by the poor electrical conductivity of contemporary organic materials. This was overcome by the discovery and development of highly conductive polymers.[12]

Electroluminescence from polymer films was first observed by Roger Partridge at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom. The device consisted of a film of poly(n-vinylcarbazole) up to 2.2 micrometres thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. The results of the project were patented in 1975[13] and published in 1983.[14][15][16][17]

The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke in 1987.[18] This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. This resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency and led to the current era of OLED research and device production.

Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes et al. at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100 nm thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)

OLED Manufacturers and commercial uses

OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital media players, car radios and digital cameras among others. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight and their low power drain. Portable displays are also used intermittently, so the lower lifespan of organic displays is less of an issue. Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs’ unique characteristics. Applications in flexible signs and lighting are also being developed.[70] Philips Lighting have made OLED lighting samples under the brand name “Lumiblade” available online [71] and Novaled AG based in Dresden, Germany, introduced a line of OLED desk lamps called “Victory” in September, 2011.[72]

OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung colour cell phones, as well as some HTC, LG and Sony Ericsson models.[73] Nokia has also introduced some OLED products including the N85 and the N86 8MP, both of which feature an AMOLED display. OLED technology can also be found in digital media players such as the Creative ZEN V, the iriver clix, the Zune HD and the Sony Walkman X Series.

The Google and HTC Nexus One smartphone includes an AMOLED screen, as does HTC’s own Desire and Legend phones. However due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays, certain HTC models will use Sony’s SLCD displays in the future,[74] while the Google and Samsung Nexus S smartphone will use “Super Clear LCD” instead in some countries.[75]

OLED displays were used in watches made by Fossil (JR-9465) and Diesel (DZ-7086).

Other manufacturers of OLED panels include Anwell Technologies Limited (Hong Kong),[76] AU Optronics (Taiwan),[77] Chi Mei Corporation(Taiwan),[78] LG (Korea),[79] and others.[80]

DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with a new printing technology. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing, then the total cost of OLED TVs would be greatly reduced. Dupont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight hour day.[81][82]

The use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Eastman Kodak, DuPont, General Electric, Royal Philips Electronics, numerous universities and others.[83] There are by now thousands of patents associated with OLEDs, both from larger corporations and smaller technology companies [1].

RIM, the maker of BlackBerry smartphones, have unofficially announced that their upcoming BlackBerry 10 devices will use OLED displays. This marks the upcoming BB10 smartphones as some of the first to use OLED displays.

[edit]Samsung applications

By 2004 Samsung, South Korea’s largest conglomerate, was the world’s largest OLED manufacturer, producing 40% of the OLED displays made in the world,[84] and as of 2010 has a 98% share of the global AMOLED market.[85] The company is leading the world of OLED industry, generating $100.2 million out of the total $475 million revenues in the global OLED market in 2006.[86] As of 2006, it held more than 600 American patents and more than 2800 international patents, making it the largest owner of AMOLED technology patents.[86]

Samsung SDI announced in 2005 the world’s largest OLED TV at the time, at 21 inches (53 cm).[87] This OLED featured the highest resolution at the time, of 6.22 million pixels. In addition, the company adopted active matrix based technology for its low power consumption and high-resolution qualities. This was exceeded in January 2008, when Samsung showcased the world’s largest and thinnest OLED TV at the time, at 31 inches and 4.3 mm.[88]

In May 2008, Samsung unveiled an ultra-thin 12.1 inch laptop OLED display concept, with a 1,280×768 resolution with infinite contrast ratio.[89] According to Woo Jong Lee, Vice President of the Mobile Display Marketing Team at Samsung SDI, the company expected OLED displays to be used in notebook PCs as soon as 2010.[90]

In October 2008, Samsung showcased the world’s thinnest OLED display, also the first to be “flappable” and bendable.[91] It measures just 0.05 mm (thinner than paper), yet a Samsung staff member said that it is “technically possible to make the panel thinner”.[91] To achieve this thickness, Samsung etched an OLED panel that uses a normal glass substrate. The drive circuit was formed by low-temperature polysilicon TFTs. Also, low-molecular organic EL materials were employed. The pixel count of the display is 480 × 272. The contrast ratio is 100,000:1, and the luminance is 200 cd/m². The colour reproduction range is 100% of the NTSC standard.

In the same month, Samsung unveiled what was then the world’s largest OLED Television at 40-inch with a Full HD resolution of 1920×1080 pixel.[92] In the FPD International, Samsung stated that its 40-inch OLED Panel is the largest size currently possible. The panel has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1, a colour gamut of 107% NTSC, and a luminance of 200 cd/m² (peak luminance of 600 cd/m²).

At the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010, Samsung demonstrated a laptop computer with a large, transparent OLED display featuring up to 40% transparency[93] and an animated OLED display in a photo ID card.[94]

Samsung’s latest AMOLED smartphones use their Super AMOLED trademark, with the Samsung Wave S8500 and Samsung i9000 Galaxy S being launched in June 2010. In January 2011 Samsung announced their Super AMOLED Plus displays, which offer several advances over the older Super AMOLED displays: real stripe matrix (50% more sub pixels), thinner form factor, brighter image and an 18% reduction in energy consumption.[95]

At CES 2012, Samsung introduced the first 55″ TV screen that uses Super OLED technology.[96]

[edit]Sony applications

Sony XEL-1, the world’s first OLED TV.[97] (front)

Sony XEL-1 (side)

The Sony CLIÉ PEG-VZ90 was released in 2004, being the first PDA to feature an OLED screen.[98] Other Sony products to feature OLED screens include the MZ-RH1 portable minidisc recorder, released in 2006[99] and the Walkman X Series.[100]

At the 2007 Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Sony showcased 11-inch (28 cm, resolution 960×540) and 27-inch (68.5 cm, full HD resolution at 1920×1080) OLED TV models.[101] Both claimed 1,000,000:1 contrast ratios and total thicknesses (including bezels) of 5 mm. In April 2007, Sony announced it would manufacture 1000 11-inch OLED TVs per month for market testing purposes.[102] On October 1, 2007, Sony announced that the 11-inch model, now called the XEL-1, would be released commercially;[97] the XEL-1 was first released in Japan in December 2007.[103]

In May 2007, Sony publicly unveiled a video of a 2.5-inch flexible OLED screen which is only 0.3 millimeters thick.[104] At the Display 2008 exhibition, Sony demonstrated a 0.2 mm thick 3.5 inch display with a resolution of 320×200 pixels and a 0.3 mm thick 11 inch display with 960×540 pixels resolution, one-tenth the thickness of the XEL-1.[105][106]

In July 2008, a Japanese government body said it would fund a joint project of leading firms, which is to develop a key technology to produce large, energy-saving organic displays. The project involves one laboratory and 10 companies including Sony Corp. NEDO said the project was aimed at developing a core technology to mass-produce 40 inch or larger OLED displays in the late 2010s.[107]

In October 2008, Sony published results of research it carried out with the Max Planck Institute over the possibility of mass-market bending displays, which could replace rigid LCDs and plasma screens. Eventually, bendable, see-through displays could be stacked to produce 3D images with much greater contrast ratios and viewing angles than existing products.[108]

Sony exhibited a 24.5″ prototype OLED 3D television during the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2010.[109]

In January 2011, Sony announced the PlayStation Vita handheld game console (the successor to the PSP) will feature a 5-inch OLED screen.[110]

On February 17, 2011, Sony announced its 25″ OLED Professional Reference Monitor aimed at the Cinema and high end Drama Post Production market.[111]

On June 25, 2012, Sony and Panasonic announced a joint venture for creating low cost mass production OLED televisions by 2013.[112]

[edit]LG applications

As of 2010, LG Electronics produced one model of OLED television, the 15 inch 15EL9500[113] and has announced a 31″ OLED 3D television for March 2011.[114] On December 26, 2011, LG officially announced the “world’s largest 55″ OLED panel” and featured it at CES 2012.[115]

[edit]Mitsubishi applications

Lumiotec OLED right

Lumiotec is the first company in the world developing and selling, since January 2011, mass produced OLED lighting panels with such brightness and long lifetime. Lumiotec is a joint venture of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ROHM, Toppan Printing, and Mitsui & Co. On June 1, 2011, Mitsubishi installed a 6-meter OLED ‘sphere’ in Tokyo’s Science Museum [116]

Recom Group/Video Name Tag applications

On January 6, 2011, Los Angeles based technology company, Recom Group introduced the first small screen consumer application of the OLED at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. This was a 2.8″ OLED display being used as a wearable Video Name Tag.[117] At the Consumer Electronics Show in 2012, Recom Group introduced the World’s first Video Mic Flag incorporating three 2.8″ OLED displays on a standard broadcasters mic flag. The Video Mic Flag allowed video content and advertising to be shown on a broadcasters standard mic flag.[118]